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      Реферат - Why was the United States unsuccessful in Vietnam?

           Рефераты по истории...


       

      Why was the United States unsuccessful in Vietnam?
      
      
      
                                                         Igor Mershon
      
      
      
      The communist beliefs began in 1848, when Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
      wrote a book called The Communist Manifesto. This book defined the beliefs
      of communism, along with portraying the natural evolution of a communist
      utopia from a capitalist society.  Marx and Engels defined communism to be
      a concept, or system, of society in which the major resources and means of
      production are owned by the community, rather than by the individuals.  In
      theory, such societies provide for equal sharing of all work, according to
      ability, and all benefits, according to need.  This, however, did not work
      because people are generally selfish and lazy.  Each person wants to do the
      least amount possible to gain the most from it.  This is where the
      conflicts arise.
      
      The Soviet Union began its communist regime under Vladimir Lenin.  His
      ideas and teachings led to mass popularity due to a poor economy in Russia
      at the time.  Lenin was not a bad leader, however he died before he was
      able to see his plan take full effect.  He had only one warning to the
      people of Russia: never to let Joseph Stalin get into power.  Lenin was
      able to foresee the tyrant when many others were blind.  The people did not
      realize their error when Stalin succeeded.  But by then, it was too late;
      Stalin had turned Russia into a fascist dictatorship.
      
      During World War II, Communism, combined with fascism, had proven to be
      very dangerous.  The Communists saw their way to be perfect, and they had
      the idea that everyone should practice their beliefs. Communism had started
      in Asia, with the likes of Joseph Stalin and Mao Tsetung.  In the mid to
      late nineteen forties, communism was thriving in Asia.  The Chinese and the
      Russians had pushed the spread of Communism south into countries such as
      Cambodia and Vietnam.  The United Stated saw this as a very real threat,
      and kept a close eye on the communist advancement.
      
      
      Between 1945 and 1975, the number of countries under communist rule
      increased greatly.  This is partly because of the way the victorious powers
      of World War II divided the world amongst themselves.  This is also due to
      the fact that countries such as China and The Soviet Union pushed their
      beliefs tyrannically on other weak countries.
      
      One of such countries was Vietnam. . From 1946 until 1954, the Vietnamese
      had struggled for their independence from France during the First Indochina
      War. At the end of this war, the country was temporarily divided into North
      and South Vietnam along the 17th parallel. North Vietnam came under the
      control of the Vietnamese Communists who had opposed France and who aimed
      for a unified Vietnam under Communist rule. Vietnamese who had collaborated
      with the French controlled the South.
      
      The foreign policy of the United States during the Cold War was driven by a
      fear of the spread of Communism. Eastern Europe had fallen under the
      domination of the Communist USSR, and Communists ruled China. This policy
      was known as the "domino theory." United States policymakers felt they
      could not afford to lose Southeast Asia as well to the Communists. The
      United States therefore offered to assist the French in recapturing
      Vietnam.
      
      Meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, from May 8 to July 21, 1954, diplomats from
      France, the United Kingdom, the USSR, China, and the United States, as well
      as representatives from Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia, drafted a set of
      agreements called the Geneva Accords. These agreements provided for the
      withdrawal of French troops to the south of Vietnam until they could be
      safely removed from the country.
      
      
      
      They also agreed that Elections were to be held in 1956 throughout the
      north and south and to be supervised by an International Control Commission
      that had been appointed at Geneva and was made
      up of representatives from Canada, Poland, and India. Following these
      elections, Vietnam was to be reunited under the government chosen by
      popular vote. The United States refused to sign the accords, because it did
      not want to allow the possibility of Communist control over Vietnam. The
      U.S. government moved to establish the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
      (SEATO), a regional alliance that extended protection to South Vietnam,
      Cambodia, and Laos in case of Communist "subversion." SEATO, which came
      into force in 1955, became the mechanism by which Washington justified its
      support for South Vietnam; this support eventually became direct
      involvement of U.S. troops.
      
      On July 30, 1964, the government of North Vietnam complained that South
      Vietnamese ships, protected by an American destroyer, had attacked two of
      their islands. On August 2, North Vietnamese patrol torpedo boats attacked
      the American destroyer Maddox in the Gulf of Tonkin but were driven off.
      Five days later, on August 7, Congress adopted what became known as the
      Tonkin Gulf Resolution. It stated that the President could “take all
      necessary measures to repel any armed attack against armed forces of the
      United States and to prevent further aggression.” The Vietnam War had
      become Americanized. Following the Tonkin Gulf Resolution, North Vietnam
      began infiltrating regular army units into South Vietnam. In the mean time,
      the President Johnson and his advisors decided that the United States
      should bomb North Vietnam and send troops into South Vietnam.
      
      
      
      The North Vietnamese fought the guerrillas war. They hid in underground
      tunnels and in jungles. In an effort to destroy the jungles the United
      States sprayed huge quantities of toxic chemicals on the countryside. It
      caused mass starvation and birth defects in Vietnamese children, as well as
      to liver damage,
      muscular disorders, and other health problems for the adults who were
      exposed to the chemicals. By 1966 many Americans were beginning to have
      serious doubts about the nation’s growing
      
      involvement in Vietnam. Without the support of their fellow Americans at
      home, it became increasingly difficult for soldiers at war to fight
      effectively.  The anti-war attitude and the atrocious treatment of
      returning veterans, made young men much more likely to evade the draft.  In
      the event that they ended up Vietnam, they would fight less effectively due
      to the fact that they did not support the cause they were fighting for.
      Undermining of the war by activists at home continued to increase with the
      increase in American casualties.  This problem is best described by Robert
      McNamara, Secretary of Defense under both Kennedy and Johnson: " A nation's
      deepest strength lies not in its military prowess, but rather, in the unity
      of its people.  We [America] failed to maintain it."[1] Without this vital
      unity, it was a near impossible task for America to win the war.  As
      America became increasingly divided between anti-war activists and those
      who supported the war, soldiers became increasingly disillusioned with
      their role in the war.  The soldiers realized that perhaps what they were
      fighting for was not a just cause.  The moral high ground held by soldiers
      at the beginning of the war began to slip as more and more soldiers
      realized that they did not truly believe in they were fighting for.  This
      coupled with low morale that resulted from the fashion that new recruits
      were placed into combat secured the North Vietnamese victory.
      
      
      Also there is the low morale and lack of combat effectiveness resulting
      from poor command of the Army's resources.  One mismanagement that resulted
      in dire consequences for America was the fashion in which new recruits were
      introduced into the war.  Instead of sending brand-new squads that had
      trained together, individual soldiers were sent to fill the space left by a
      soldier who had just been killed or injured.  For the
      veteran soldiers, the new recruits served as reminders of fallen friends,
      and thus were never truly accepted into the unit.  With this being the
      attitude of many soldiers, it was very difficult for a sort of esprit de
      corps to develop.  The lack of comradely severely hampered the fighting
      ability of the
      army as a whole.  The detrimental effects resulting from the lack of
      teamwork (around which every army needs to be based) were further
      confounded by a lack of commitment to the war it had become involved.
      
      Involvement in Vietnam was increased in very incremental fashion.  "
      Some...have criticized the Government's...gradual force buildup...in lieu
      of striking the enemy with full force."[2] Had the Government completely
      committed itself to the war, it may not have degenerated into a lengthy
      defeat from a decisive victory.  The amount of firepower America could have
      brought to bear would have been near impossible to stand against.  While it
      is easy to theorize the outcome of the war had the full might of the
      American Army been brought to bear at once, it is much more difficult for
      one to judge the reaction of the South Vietnamese people to an American
      victory.
      
      Finally, and most important, the support given by the South Vietnamese was
      a deciding factor in the outcome of the war.  It is logical that the
      support of those one is trying to liberate is required for liberation
      
      
      to be achieved.  This is something that was, in part, lacking during the
      Vietnam War.  A stable government was never established in South Vietnam,
      and therefore the people of the south did not feel that they had something
      worth fighting for.  This opened a gulf between the Americans and the
      Vietnamese as described in the following:
       " The Vietnamese people saw the Americans as perpetrators of the suffering
         Which the war had brought...the American soldiers did not want to know
           The Vietnamese, but wanted only to use them for menial labor, self-
       Gratification, and often as scapegoats for the frustrations and anger they
                                          felt
         Against the enemy and the war...America gave them nothing and expected
       Loyalty in return.  The Vietnamese people saw only one side of the American
         People and the United States and most often it was the worst side."[3]
      
      The lack of support from those the Americans were trying to save, coupled
      with increasing anti-war protest at home, created a climate unsuitable for
      winning the war.  This situation only worsened as the war progressed up to
      American withdrawal and the eventual fall of Saigon.  The final outcome of
      the war was inevitable without the full support of the South Vietnamese
      people.
      Eventually, the United States had no choice but to withdraw and leave the
      war to the South Vietnamese.  Even as the fall of Saigon was imminent,
      America would not re-enter the war despite the mass amounts of money and
      human life spent in an attempt to halt the spread of communism.
      
      
      
      In conclusion, the most important factor in deciding the outcome of the
      Vietnam War was the lack of support that came both from South Vietnam and
      from activists at home.  Billions of dollars and thousands of lives were
      sacrificed for a cause that was lost from the start: the liberation of a
      people who did not want the American brand of freedom being offered.  The
      war left behind an embarrassing legacy as well as deep wounds that have yet
      to heal even today.  Many veterans were left disillusioned as they returned
      home to be treated as villains rather than heroic defenders of freedom.
      Casualties were suffered even by those who did not fight in Vietnam, as
      protestors were shot at Kent State University.  The United States had
      drastically altered its image throughout the world, driving away her allies
      as a result of the war. In a war without support, " an entire American army
      was sacrificed on the battlefield of
      Vietnam"[4] and "it will be at least a generation before. Vietnam' will
      mean anything but a war of agony, frustration, and humiliation."[5]
      
      
      
      Bibliography:
      1) Colby, William.  Lost victory.  Markham:  Beaverbooks, 1989.
      
      2) Fulbright, J. William, The Arrogance of Power. Random House, Inc., 1966
      3) McNamara, Robert S. In Retrospect:  The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam.
      Toronto:
            Random House of Canada Limited, 1995.
      
      4) Stanton, Shelby L.  The Rise and Fall of an American Army: US Ground
      Forces in Vietnam.
            Novato: Presidio Press, 1985.
      
      5) Welsh, Douglas.  The History of the Vietnam War.  Greenwich: Bison Books
      Corp, 1981
      6) William A. Link et al., American Epoch: A History of the United States
      since 1900 Affluence and
                                                         Anxiety 1940-1992,
      Volume II (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993)
      7) Winthrop D. Jordan. The Americans. Illinois: McDougal Littell/Houghton
      Miffin Inc., 1996
      
      -----------------------
      [1] McNamara, Robert S. In Retrospect:  The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam.
       (Toronto:
            Random House of Canada Limited, 1995 ) p.322
      [2] Colby, William.  Lost victory.  (Markham:  Beaverbooks, 1989) p.362
      
      [3] Welsh, Douglas.  The History of the Vietnam War. (Greenwich: Bison
      Books Corp, 1981) p.188
      
      [4] Stanton, Shelby L.  The Rise and Fall of an American Army: US Ground
      Forces in Vietnam.
            (Novato: Presidio Press, 1985)  p.368
      [5] Welsh, Douglas.  The History of the Vietnam War. (Greenwich: Bison
      Books Corp., 1981) p.189