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      ѕоиск –еферата по √лобальной  оллекции
      ћеждународные отношени€

      –еферат - The enlargement of the European Union


      The enlargement of the European Union
      Europe at the service of peace and democracy
        Community Europe has celebrated its 50th anniversary.
        On 9 May 1950, Robert Schuman made history  by  putting  to  the  Federal
      Republic of Germany, and to  the  other  European  countries,  the  idea  of
      creating a Community  of  pacific  interests.  He  began  a  completely  new
      process in international relations by proposing to old nations  to  together
      recover, by exercising jointly their sovereignty, the influence  which  each
      of them was incapable of exercising alone.
        The construction of Europe has since then moved  forward  every  day.  It
      represents the most significant undertaking of the 20th century  and  a  new
      hope at the dawn of the new century. It derives its momentum from  the  far-
      sighted and ambitious project of the founding fathers who emerged  from  the
      second world war driven by the resolve to establish between the  peoples  of
      Europe the conditions for a lasting peace.
      A historic success
        As Europe approaches the dawn of the third millennium, a look  back  over
      the 50 years  of  progress  towards  European  integration  shows  that  the
      European  Union  is  a  historic  success.  Countries  which  were  hitherto
      enemies, today share a common currency, the euro, and manage their  economic
      and commercial interests within the framework of joint institutions.
        Europeans now settle their differences through peaceful  means,  applying
      the rule of law and seeking conciliation.  The  spirit  of  superiority  and
      discrimination has been  banished  from  relationships  between  the  Member
      States, which  have  entrusted  to  the  four  Community  institutions,  the
      Council,  the  Parliament,  Commission  and  the  Court  of   Justice,   the
      responsibility for mediating  their  conflicts,  for  defining  the  general
      interest of Europeans and for pursuing common policies.
        Economic integration every day highlights the need for and  takes  people
      closer to political union. At international level,  the  European  Union  is
      wielding increasing influence commensurate  with  its  economic  importance,
      the standard of living of its citizens, its place in diplomatic,  commercial
      and monetary forums.
        The European  Community  derives  its  strength  from  common  values  of
      democracy and human rights, which rally its peoples, and  it  has  preserved
      the diversity of cultures and languages and the  traditions  which  make  it
      what it is. Its transatlantic  solidarity  and  the  attractiveness  of  its
      model  has  enabled  a  united  Europe  to   withstand   the   pressure   of
      totalitarianism and to consolidate the rule of law.
        The European Community  stands  as  a  beacon  for  the  expectations  of
      countries near and far which watch the UnionТs  progress  with  interest  as
      they seek to consolidate their re-emerging democracies or rebuild  a  ruined
        Today, the Union of the 15 Member States is negotiating the next wave  of
      membership with 10 countries of central and eastern Europe, and  with  Malta
      and Cyprus. At a later stage, other countries of former Yugoslavia or  which
      belong to the European sphere will in turn ask to join. The taking on  board
      by the applicant countries of the acquis communautaire, and  more  generally
      of the major objectives of the European Union,  is  central  to  enlargement
      negotiations. For the first time in  its  long  history,  the  continent  is
      preparing to become reunified in peace and freedom.
        Such developments are momentous in terms of world balance and will have a
      huge impact on EuropeТs relations with the United States, Russia,  Asia  and
      Latin America.
      The key dates of the European Enlargement
      1945 Ц After the Second World War Europe was destroyed.  The  main  problems
          facing european states  were  security  and  economic  reconsrtruction.
          ThatТs where the discussion on any integration of Europe  started.  The
          ideas of Kudenhove-Calergi were recollected.
      1950 Ц R. Schuman proposed to pool coal and steel resources  of  France  and
      1951 Ц The  Paris  treaty  was  signed:  France,  the  Federal  Republic  of
          Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands  and  Luxembourg  established  the
          European Coal and Steel Community. This organization could regulate the
          European market. It was the first step of European integration  and  in
          terms of the enlargement Ц it was the original platform to enlarge.
      1961 Ц Ten years later, after the EEC and the Euroatom were created  (1957),
          the UK Ц the leader of EFTA (1960) Ц applied to enter the EEC.
      1963, 1965 Ц the situation was not  that  favourable  for  the  UK.  On  the
          initiative of De Gaulle, the French leader at that moment, France twice
          vetoed the UKТs accession to the Community.
      1967 Ц A new application for Community membership from the  UK  (the  fourth
          attempt), Denmark and Ireland.
      1972 Ц Here we have the first enlargement: The Treaty on  the  accession  of
          Denmark, Ireland, Norway, the UK was signed in Brussels. In Denmark and
          Norway the referendums were hold and Norwegian people  decided  not  to
          join the Community (they will change their mind only in 1996).  So,  in
          1973 the agreement  on  accession  entered  in  force  only  for  three
          applicants: the UK, Denmark and Ireland.
      1973 Ц Greece applied to enter the Community. During the 70-ties the EC  was
          discussing the situation with Mediterranean states. Greece,  spain  and
          Portugal were not able to join  the  Community  because  of  dictatural
          governments ruling there.
      1981 Ц Finally, after the dictature collapsed, Greece entered the EC.
      1986 Ц Five years later Spain and Portugal joined the Community.
      1993 Ц After a long pause the enlargement was continued Ц  the  negotiations
          on Austria, Sweden and Finland accession were opened.
      Soon after the fall of the Berlin  Wall  in  1989,  the  European  Community
      quickly established diplomatic  relations  with  the  countries  of  central
      Europe. During the 1990s, the  European  Community  and  its  Member  States
      progressively  concluded   Association   Agreements,   so   called   'Europe
      Agreements', with ten countries of central  Europe.  The  Europe  Agreements
      provide the legal basis for bilateral relations between these countries  and
      the EU. The European Community had already established  similar  Association
      Agreements with Turkey (1963), Malta (1970) and Cyprus (1972). In  the  case
      of Turkey, a Customs Union entered into force in December 1995.
      1995 Ц Sweden, Finland and Austria joined the European Union.
      1996 Ц Malta applied to enter the EU. This application was soon frozen  till
      1997 Ц At its summit in Luxembourg in December 1997,  the  European  Council
          decided that the enlargement process should encompass:
           . the European Conference, a multilateral framework  bringing  together
             ten central European countries, Cyprus and Turkey, which was launched
             on 12 March 1998;
           . the accession process, covering ten central  European  countries  and
             Cyprus, which was launched on 30 March 1998;
           . the accession negotiations, which the  European  Council  decided  to
             open on 31 March 1998 with  six  countries,  as  recommended  by  the
             European Commission: Cyprus, the Czech  Republic,  Estonia,  Hungary,
             Poland and Slovenia.
      1998 Ц Malta reactivated its application for Community  membership  made  in
      1998 Ц The EU formally launched  the  process  that  will  make  enlargement
          possible. It  embraces  the  following  thirteen  applicant  countries:
          Bulgaria,  Cyprus,  the  Czech  Republic,  Estonia,  Hungary,   Latvia,
          Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Romania, the Slovak  Republic,  Slovenia  and
      1999 Ц The Commission adopted its reports and a general composite  paper  on
          the progress made by each  of  the  candidate  countries  (ten  central
          European countries, Cyprus, Malta and Turkey) towards  accession.  They
          show that all countries except Turkey fulfil the political criteria for
          accession and that only  Cyprus  and  Malta  fully  meet  the  economic
          criteria.  Based  on  these  regular  reports,   the   Commission   has
          recommended  to  open  negotiations  with  Malta,  Latvia,   Lithuania,
          Slovakia and also with Bulgaria and  Romania  but  subject  to  certain
          conditions for the latter two. The Commission has also  recommended  to
          conduct accession negotiations through a differentiated approach taking
          account of the progress made by each candidate.
      1999 Ц A new institutional process was put in train by  the  decision  taken
          by  the  European  Council  meeting   in   Helsinki   to   convene   an
          intergovernmental conference with the aim inter alia  of  adapting  the
          treaties to the conditions whereby a Union enlarged to over 20  members
          can function smoothly.
      2000 Ц Negotiations with Romania, Slovakia, Latvia, Lithuania, Bulgaria  and
          Malta on the conditions for their entry into the Union and the  ensuing
          Treaty adjustments started.  As  for  Turkey  -  The  European  Council
          welcomed recent  positive  developments  in  Turkey,  as  well  as  its
          intention to continue its reforms towards complying with the Copenhagen
          criteria. In doing so, Turkey is considered as  a  candidate  State  to
          join the Union on the basis of the same  criteria  as  applied  to  the
          other candidate States.
      December, 2000 Ц By agreeing - on a Treaty of Nice,  the  EU  member  states
          also removed the last formal obstacle  to  moving  ahead  with  the  EU
          enlargement process. The conclusions go on to say that  "the  time  has
          now come to lend fresh impetus to  the  process".  The  summit  broadly
          endorsed the enlargement  strategy  proposed  by  the  Commission,  and
          emphasised "the principle of differentiation, based on  each  candidate
          country's own merits", and "allowance of scope for  catching  up".  The
          road map for  the  next  18  months  will  ease  the  way  for  further
          negotiations, bearing in mind that those countries which are  the  best
          prepared will continue to be able to progress more quickly, the  summit
          Meanwhile, the summit expressed appreciation for the  efforts  made  by
          the candidates, and requested  them  "to  continue  and  speed  up  the
          necessary reforms to prepare themselves for accession, particularly  as
          regards strengthening their administrative capacity, so as to  be  able
          to  join  the  Union  as  soon  as  possible".  And  it  welcomed   the
          establishment of economic and financial  dialogue  with  the  candidate
      2003 Ц The Union  has  declared  that  it  will  be  ready  to  welcome  new
          countries from the start of 2003.
      The weighting of votes in the future council
      The Treaty of Nice signed at the summit decided not only  on  voting  rights
      for the current fifteen member states,  but  also  on  the  votes  that  the
      candidates will have as they become member  states.  The  full  list  is  as
      Germany, United Kingdom, France and Italy Ц 29
      Spain and Poland Ц 27
      Romania Ц 14
      Netherlands Ц 13
      Greece, Czech Republic, Belgium, Hungary, Portugal Ц 12
      Sweden, Bulgaria, Austria Ц 10
      Slovakia, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Lithuania Ц 7
      Latvia, Slovenia, Estonia, Cyprus, Luxembourg Ц 4
      Malta Ц 3
      Total Ц 342
      A qualified majority in the new voting system will be 255 (74.56%).
        The enlargement facing the EU today poses a unique challenge, since it is
      without  precedent  in  terms  of  scope  and  diversity:  the   number   of
      candidates, the area (increase of  34%)  and  population  (increase  of  105
      million), the wealth of different histories and  cultures.  Third  countries
      will significantly benefit from an enlarged Union.
      The challenges of the future
        After a half century of Community history, Europeans still have a lot  of
      soul-searching to do: How far could and should the Union be taken  in  order
      to maximise the strength which derives from unity, without at the same  time
      eroding identity  and  destroying  the  individual  ethos  which  makes  the
      richness of our nations, regions and cultures?  Can  they  move  forward  in
      step, thanks to the natural  harmony  which  favours  consensus  between  15
      countries,  or  should  they   recognise   divergences   of   approach   and
      differentiate their pace of integration? What are the  limits  of  Community
      Europe, at a time when so many nations, starting with  the  new  democracies
      of central and eastern Europe  and  the  Balkans,  along  with  Turkey,  are
      asking to join the process of unification in progress? How  can  the  people
      of Europe get everyone involved in the Community undertaking and  give  them
      the feeling of  a  European  identity  which  complements  and  goes  beyond
      fundamental solidarity?
        All these are questions of principle, fundamental questions  the  answers
      to which will  themselves  determine  the  specific  and  technical  matters
      addressed daily by  those  who  have  the  task  of  taking  this  Community
      undertaking forward.